Interlinkage Between Persistent Organic Pollutants and Plastic in the Waste Management System of India: An Overview (2024)

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Journal of Health and Pollution

Public Health Burden of E-waste in Africa

2019 •

Benjamin Oritsemuelebi

Background. Environmental impacts from informal e-waste recycling are increasing in Africa. E-waste handling and disposal exposes people to highly toxic co*cktails of heavy metals, brominated flame retardants, non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PBDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB). Most of these compounds are endocrine disrupters, and most are neuro- and immune-toxic as well. Objectives. Informal e-waste recycling in African countries is a serious public health threat. The present paper reviews the extent of e-waste exposure in Africa and related impacts on people, animals and the environment. Methods. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) were searched for publications related to e-waste and human health in Africa. Search terms included ‘e-waste in Africa’, ‘e-waste in developing nations’, ‘public heal...

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Monitoring dioxins and PCBs in eggs as sensitive indicators for environmental pollution and global contaminated sites and recommendations for reducing and controlling releases and exposure

Monitoring dioxins and PCBs in eggs as sensitive indicators for environmental pollution and global contaminated sites and recommendations for reducing and controlling releases and exposure

2022 •

Yuyun Ismawati

This review compiles information on PCDD/F- and PCB-contaminated eggs from 20 years of global egg monitoring around emission sources in four continents conducted by the International Pollutants Elimination Network (IPEN) and Arnika as well as a compilation of data from scientific literature. IPEN monitored 127 pooled egg samples including samples from 113 chicken flocks at potential PCDD/F- and PCB-contaminated sites around priority sources listed in the Stockholm Convention (e.g. waste incinerators, metal industries, cement plants, and open burning). 99 (88%) of pooled egg samples were above the EU maximum limits for PCDD/Fs (2.5 pg PCDD/F-TEQ/g fat) or the sum of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (5 pg PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ/g fat). Children consuming such eggs exceed the tolerable weekly intake (TWI). This demonstrates that close to 90% of these areas were not safe for the production of free-range eggs. Sixteen out of the 113 egg samples (14%) were contaminated above 50 pg TEQ/g fat and exceeded the EU maximum limit more than 10 times. From the 26 pooled egg samples around incinerators 24 (92%) exceeded the limit with a mean of 43.1 pg TEQ/g fat (2.6–234 pg TEQ/g). All 21 egg samples around metal industries (4.4–112.6 pg TEQ/g fat) were above limits with mean concentration of 26.0 pg TEQ/g fat. Also all 7 egg samples measured at e-waste recycling sites were above limits (mean 308 pg TEQ/g fat). In 58 (51%) pooled egg samples the PCB-TEQ was above 5 pg TEQ/g fat exceeding the EU maximum limit with dioxin-like PCBs alone. This highlights the role of commercial PCBs for global contamination with dioxin-like compounds. It was discovered that around metal industries, shredder plants, open burning sites of e-waste and dump sites, a high share of contamination was caused by dl-PCBs. This clearly shows severe PCB release from the end-of-life management of PCB-containing equipment in developing countries. Also highly contaminated eggs were found at many sites where plastic was incinerated. The highest contaminated egg sample ever measured came from an e-waste site in Ghana and had 856 pg TEQ/g fat plus 300 pg TEQ from brominated dioxins (PBDD/Fs). Other extreme PCDD/F contaminations of eggs were found at a chlor-alkali site (514 pg TEQ/g fat), Agent Orange contaminated areas in Vietnam (490, 249 and 246 pg TEQ/g fat) and e-waste sites (568 and 520 pg TEQ/g fat). Where DR CALUX® bioassay revealed higher TEQ compared to measured PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ in IPEN studies, polybrominated PBDD/F were also measured and detected up to 300 pg TEQ/g fat at e-waste sites. One positive outcome from the IPEN studies is that all 10 pooled supermarket eggs in developing countries were below regulatory limit. Policy recommendations are made including: a systematic assessment of areas around PCDD/Fs and PCBs sources; measures for reduction of exposures of populations; urgent control of emission sources including PCB equipment, the open burning of plastic, and the use of plastic as fuel in boilers/incinerators in developing countries without air pollution control. Furthermore, soil limits need to be re-assessed and lowered for free-range poultry.

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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

E-Waste in Africa: A Serious Threat to the Health of Children

David Carpenter

Waste electronic and electrical equipment (e-waste) consists of used and discarded electrical and electronic items ranging from refrigerators to cell phones and printed circuit boards. It is frequently moved from developed countries to developing countries where it is dismantled for valuable metals in informal settings, resulting in significant human exposure to toxic substances. E-waste is a major concern in Africa, with large sites in Ghana and Nigeria where imported e-waste is dismantled under unsafe conditions. However, as in many developing countries, used electronic and electrical devices are imported in large quantities because they are in great demand and are less expensive than new ones. Many of these used products are irreparable and are discarded with other solid waste to local landfills. These items are then often scavenged for the purpose of extracting valuable metals by heating and burning, incubating in acids and other methods. These activities pose significant health...

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Pure and Applied Chemistry

Global occurrence, chemical properties, and ecological impacts of e-wastes (IUPAC Technical Report)

2020 •

Ming Wong

The waste stream of obsolete electronic equipment grows exponentially, creating a worldwide pollution and resource problem. Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) comprises a heterogeneous mix of glass, plastics (including flame retardants and other additives), metals (including rare Earth elements), and metalloids. The e-waste issue is complex and multi-faceted. In examining the different aspects of e-waste, informal recycling in developing countries has been identified as a primary concern, due to widespread illegal shipments; weak environmental, as well as health and safety, regulations; lack of technology; and inadequate waste treatment structure. For example, Nigeria, Ghana, India, Pakistan, and China have all been identified as hotspots for the disposal of e-waste. This article presents a critical examination on the chemical nature of e-waste and the resulting environmental impacts on, for example, microbial biodiversity, flora, and fauna in e-waste recycling sites around t...

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Sustainability

Environmental and Health Consequences of E-Waste Dumping and Recycling Carried out by Selected Countries in Asia and Latin America

Lynda Nwanyibunwa Andeobu

The volume of e-waste generated worldwide is surging, and it is set to escalate further due to continuing technological innovation and the early obsolescence of most electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Even though there are many studies on e-waste management, the environmental and health consequences of e-waste regarding direct exposure during informal recycling and indirect exposure through environmental contamination are poorly studied. This study analyses the environmental and health consequences of e-waste dumping and informal recycling practices in selected countries such as Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and Pakistan. Several databases, such as Science Direct, ProQuest, Web of Science, and Emerald, were used to analyse studies from 2005 to 2022. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol, 179 journal articles were evaluated. This study found that the majority of e-waste is poorly managed in terms of ecological safety...

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ACS Symposium Series

E-Waste and Associated Environmental Contamination in the Asia/Pacific Region (Part 1): An Overview

2016 •

Paromita Chakraborty

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Environmental Pollution

A comprehensive assessment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in an Indian food basket: Levels, dietary intakes, and comparison with European data

2021 •

Girija Bharat

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Energies

PAH and POP Presence in Plastic Waste and Recyclates: State of the Art

Nuria Ortuño

The presence of different pollutants in recycled plastics is reviewed in this article. The desirable circular economy of plastics should be linked to the availability of clean recycled plastics with a non-significant and small to nil amount of substances of concern. Different researchers found polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs), pesticides, dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) in plastic recyclates. This represents an added difficulty to the effective recycling process of plastics that reduces the demand for energy and materials, in addition to posing a great environmental danger since they represent a vector of accumulation of the contaminants that will finally appear in the most unexpected products. Life Cycle Analysis of the plastic wastes recycling process indicates a great saving of energy, water and CO2 emissions.

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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

A Review of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Pollution in the Air: Where and How Much Are We Exposed to?

nur amirah shibraumalisi

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were widely used in industrial and commercial applications, until they were banned in the late 1970s as a result of their significant environmental pollution. PCBs in the environment gained scientific interest because of their persistence and the potential threats they pose to humans. Traditionally, human exposure to PCBs was linked to dietary ingestion. Inhalational exposure to these contaminants is often overlooked. This review discusses the occurrence and distribution of PCBs in environmental matrices and their associated health impacts. Severe PCB contamination levels have been reported in e-waste recycling areas. The occurrence of high PCB levels, notably in urban and industrial areas, might result from extensive PCB use and intensive human activity. Furthermore, PCB contamination in the indoor environment is ten-fold higher than outdoors, which may present expose risk for humans through the inhalation of contaminated air or through the ingestio...

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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in e-waste plastic in Nigeria

2015 •

Omotayo Sindiku

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Interlinkage Between Persistent Organic Pollutants and Plastic in the Waste Management System of India: An Overview (2024)
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